Grimm's Fairy Tales - The Brothers Grimm

The first volume of the first Grimm's Fairy Tales edition was published in 1812, containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1815. For the second edition, two volumes were issued in 1819 and a third in 1822, totalling 170 tales. The third edition appeared in 1837; fourth edition, 1840; fifth edition, 1843; sixth edition, 1850; seventh edition, 1857.  

Stories were added, and also subtracted, from one edition to the next, until the seventh held 211 tales. All editions were extensively illustrated, first by Philipp Grot Johann and, after his death in 1892, by Robert Leinweber. 

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Enjoy your reading!!!

New Round-Up 2 - Verginia Evans and Jenny Dooley

Grammar can be fun! Students will find grammar practice enjoyable with New Round-Up.

Clear grammar tables and explanations combined with lots of practice make understanding the language easy for young learner. 

Lessons provide a variety of games and written exercises and students will have plenty of opportunities for additional practice with the interactive student CD-ROM.

Please click here to download Student's Book, Audio, Teacher's Book and CD-ROM.

Simple Past Tense

a. Spelling:
  • The normal rule is to add "_ed" after regular verbs. Ex: Work => worked, start => started, play => played...
  • If the verb ends in "_e", add "_d". Ex: Love => loved, like => liked, change => changed...
  • If the verb has only one syllable + one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant. Ex: Stop => stopped, plan => planned, travel => travelled... The consonant is not doubled if it is "y" or "w". Ex: Played, Showed...
  • In most two-syllable verbs, the end consonant is doubled if the stress is on the second syllable. Ex: preferred, admitted...
  • If the verb ends in a consonant + y, change the "_y" to "_ied". Ex: Study => studied, try => tried, deny => denied.... There are many common irregular verbs.
b. Form: S + Ved
c. Uses:
  • The past simple expresses a past action that is now finished. Ex: we played tennis last Sunday. I began to learn English 10 years ago. John left 2 hours ago.
  • To express actions which follow each other in a story. Ex: Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully. She heard a noise coming from behind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, and then she saw... He woke up early, jumped out of bed, dressed quickly and without having breakfast, left home.
  • To express a past situation or habit. Ex: when I was a child, we lived in a small house by the sea. Everyday I walked for miles on the beach with my dog.
Note: the time expressions are used with past simple: "last year, ago, yesterday, in 1990..." Ex: I was born in 1897. She met her teacher at the school yesterday.

Past Perfect Tense

a. Form: S + Had + Past Participle (PP)

b. Uses:

The past perfect is used to express an action in the past, which happened before another action in the past. Ex: when I got home, John had cooked a meal.

Note: the use of past perfect and the past simple in the following sentences. Ex: when I got home, John had cooked a meal - (John cooked a meal before I got home). When I got home, John cooked a meal - (First I got home, and then John cooked).

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

a. Form: S + Had + Been + Ving
b. Uses
  • To express an action was happening before another action in the past. Ex: by 9 o'clock last night, the pilot had been flying nine hours non-stop. They had been waiting for someone when they saw John go with a strange man. The football match had to be stopped. They had been playing half an hour when there was a heavy rain.
  • We this tense for an action that went on over a period before a past time. Ex: when I found the file, I'd been looking for it for some time. (The action of looking went on for some time before the discovery of the life.) When I saw Tom, he'd been playing golf. (I saw him after the game.)

Past Continuous Tense

a. Form: S + BE (Is/Are/Am) + Ving
b. Uses:
  • We often use the past continuous in sentences together with the past simple when this happens; the past continuous refers to longer, background activities, while the past simple refers to shorter actions that happened in the middle of the longer ones. Ex: when I went to school, I saw Jim was talking with a beautiful girl.
  • The past continuous expresses a past activity that has duration. Ex: I met her while I was walking on the street. You were making a lots noise last night. We were playing football yesterday afternoon.
  • The activity began "before" the action expressed by the past simple. Ex: she was making coffee when we arrived. When I phoned Marry, she was having dinner.
  • The past continuous expresses an activity in progress before, and probable after, a time in the past. Ex: when I woke up this morning, the sun was shining. What were you doing at 8 o'clock last night?
c. Past simple - Past continuous
  • The past simple expresses past actions as simple facts. Ex: I did my homework last night. What sis you do yesterday evening? "I watched TV".
  • The past continuous gives past activities time and duration. The activity can be interrupted. Ex: what were you doing at 7.00? I was watching TV. I was doing homework when Tom arrived.
  • In stories, the past continuous can describe the scene. The past simple tells the actions. Ex: it was a beautiful day. The sun was shining and the birds were singing, so we decided to go for a picnic. We put everything in the car...
The questions below refer to different time periods. The past continuous asks about activities before, and the past simple asks about what happened after.
Ex: What were you doing? / What did you do? When it started to rain? We were playing tennis. We went home.

Passive Voice

a. Form: S + BE + Past Participle (PP)
b. Uses:
  • The object of an active verb becomes the subject of a passive verb. Notice the use of "by" in the passive sentence. Ex: Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. => Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  • The passive is not another way of expressing the same sentence in the active. We choose the active or the passive depending on what we are more interested in. Ex: Hamlet was written in 1600. (We are more interested in Hamlet). She gave me a book for my birthday. => I was given a book for my birthday./ A book was give for my birthday.
  • The passive: very often "by" and the agent are omitted in passive sentence. This might be because the agent is not known, or the agent is not important, or we understand who the agent is. Ex: my flat was burgled last night. This bridge was built in 1990. I was fined 20$ for speeding.
  • The passive is associated with an impersonal, formal style. It is often used in notices and announcements. Ex: customers are requested to refrain from smoking. It has been noticed that reference books have been removed from the library.
  • In Informal language, we often use "you, we, and they" to refer to people in general or to no person in particular. In this way we can avoid using the passive. Ex: they are building a new department store in the city centre. You can buy stamps in lots of store, not just post offices. We speak English in this shop.
Note: be careful! Many past participles are used more like adjectives. Ex: I am exhausted! I have been working all day. We were worried about you. Aren't you bored by the new?

PRESENT SIMPLE: S + Is/ Are/ Am + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: English is spoken all over the world. Renault cars are made in France. I am punished by my teacher. Where is rice grown?
Note: the rules for tense usage in the passive are the same as in the active present simple to express habit. Ex: my car is serviced regularly.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS: S + Is/ Are/ Am + Being + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: the police are questioning him. => He is being questioned by the police. I am reading a book. => The book is being read by me.

PRESENT PERFECT: S + Has/ Have + Been + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: I have been robbed! They haven't been invited to the party. Has my car been repaired?
Note: present perfect to express an action which began in the past and continues to the present. Ex: Diet coke has been made since 1982.

PAST SIMPLE: S + Was/ Were + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: the manager sacked us. => We were sacked by the manager. My car was stolen last night. He was injured in the accident.

Note: past simple to express a finished action in the past. Ex: America was discovered by Christopher Columbus.

PAST CONTINUOUS: S + Was/ Were + Being + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: he was reading a newspaper when I came. => A newspaper was being read when I came. When I met her yesterday, she was buying some pens. => Some pens were being bought when I met her yesterday.

PAST PERFECT: S + Had Been + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: I had made a decision before 10 o'clock last night. => a decision had been made by me before 10 o'clock last night. He had finished his work. => His work had been finished.

SIMPLE FUTURE: S + Will/ Shall + Be + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: the mailman will deliver the letters. => The letters will be delivered by the mailman. 10000 cars will be produced next year. Will the children be sent to a new school? They are going to play are going to play the game. => The game is going to be played.

FUTERE PERFECT: S + Will/ Shall + Have Been + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: I shall have received my doctor degree by next month. => My doctor degree will have been received by next month. The book won't have been published yet.

MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS: S + Modal Verbs + Be + Past Participle (PP)
Ex: he can speak English ? English can be spoken by him. The house must be repaired. Books should be read.

SOME PASSIVE PATTERNS:
It is said/ thought...
  • We use this pattern with verbs of reporting. Ex: People said that 13 is unlucky.? It is said that the number 13 is unlucky. It is thought that the paining is genuine.
  • Some verbs in this pattern are: "accept, agree, announce, argue, assume, believe, claim, decide, except, feel, find, hope, know, notice, predict, realize, report, see, show, state, suggest, understand..."
...said to be...
  • This pattern involves a passive verb of reporting and a: to + Vinf. Ex: we were expected to win, but we lost. A man is believed to have been killed. The number 13 is said to be unlucky.
  • Some verbs in this pattern are: "expect, feel, find, know, mean, prove, report, say, see, show, state, suppose, think, understand...
The passive with "get"
  • We sometimes form the passive with "get" rather than with "be". Ex: luckily I got accepted at art school. Lots of people get killed on the roads.
  • We can also use "get" for something happening incidentally, as part of a larger operation. But is not used for a planned action. Ex: this dustbin gets emptied once a week. The railway was privatized in the 1990s.
  • We use "do" in simple tense negatives and questions. Ex: how often do rugby players get injured? The bins didn't get emptied yesterday.
Have/ get something done
  • This pattern means: "cause something to be done". We use it mainly to talk about professional services to a customer. "Get" is little Informal. Ex: I had my car serviced. I got my hair cut.
  • We can also use "get" Informally for a job we do ourselves. Ex: I must get my homework done. We got everything packed and ready.
Have something happen
  • This pattern has the same form as "have something done". It often refers to an unpleasant experience. Ex: we had a window broken in the storm. My sister has had some money stolen.

Writing and Saying Numbers

Numbers Over 20

Are written with a hyphen: Ex: 27 (twenty - seven); 54 (fifty - four).
When writing a cheque we often use words for the pounds or dollars and figures for the pence or cents. Ex: $99.99 (ninety - nine dollars and ninety nice).

Numbers Over 100

Ex: 123 (one hundred and twenty three). The "and" is pronounced /n/ and the stress is on the final numbers. In American English the "and" is sometimes left out.

Numbers Over 1,000

Ex: 1200 (one thousand two hundred/ twelve hundred); 1345 (one thousand three hundred and forty five).
There is Informal forms are most common for whole hundreds between 1100 and 1900. A comma or a space or often used to divide large numbers into groups of 3 figures. Ex: 56,789 or 56 789 (fifty six thousands seven hundred and eighty nine).

Fractions

Ex: 1/2 (a/ one half); 1/4 (one fourth/ a quarter); 2/3 (two thirds); 3/9 (three ninths)...
For emphasis use "one" instead of "a"
More complex fractions:
Use "over". Ex: 24/78 (twenty - four over seventy - eight); 57/456 (fifty - seven over four five six).
Whole numbers and fractions:
Use "and". Ex: 3 1/2 (three and a half).

Negative Statements

No

Used to give a negative reply or statement: Just say yes or no. "Are you ready? No, I'm not." Sorry, the answer's no. "Another drink? No, thanks." It's about 70 - no, I'm wrong - 80 kilometres from Rome. No! Don't touch it! It's hot. "It was Tony. No, you're wrong. It was Ted." "It's not very good, is it? No, you're right, it isn't (= I agree)."
Used to express shock or surprise at what sb has said: "She's had an accident. Oh, no!" "I'm leaving! No!"
Not one; not any; not a: No student is to leave the room. There were no letters this morning. There's no bread left. No two days are the same.
Used, for example on notices, to say that sth is not allowed: No smoking!
There's doing sth: used to say that it is impossible to do sth: There's no telling what will happen next.
Used to express the opposite of what is mentioned: She's no fool (= she's intelligent). It was no easy matter (= it was difficult).
Used before adjectives and adverbs to mean "not": She's feeling no better this morning. Reply by no later than 21 July.
An answer that shows you do not agree with an idea, a statement, etc.; a person who says "no": Can't you give me a straight yes or no? When we took a vote there were nine yeses and 3 noes. I'll put you down as a no.
The noes [pl.] the total number of people voting "no" in a formal debate, for example in a parliament: The noes have it (= more people have voted against sth than for it).

None

None (of sb/sth) not one of a group of people or things, not any: None of these pens works/work. We have three sons but none of them lives/live nearby. We saw several houses but none we really liked. Tickets for Friday? Sorry we've got none left. He told me all the news but none of it was very exciting. "Is there any more milk? No, none at all." (Formal) Everybody liked him but none (nobody) more than I.
None but: (literary) only: None but he knew the truth.
None other than: used to emphasize who or what sb/sth is, when this is surprising: Her first customer was none other than Mrs Blair.
Have/ want none of sth: to refuse to accept sth: I offered to pay but he was having none of it.
None the less = nonetheless
  • Used with "the" and a comparative to mean "not at all": She told me what it meant at great length but I'm afraid I'm none the wiser. He seems none the worse for the experience.
  • Used with too and an adjective or adverb to mean "not at all" or "not very": She was looking none too pleased.
  • None of: When you use none of with an uncountable noun, the verb is in the singular: None of the work was done. When you use none of with a plural noun or pronoun, or a singular noun referring to a group of people or things, you can use either a singular or a plural verb. The singular form is used in a formal style in BrE: None of the trains is / are going to London. None of her family has / have been to college.

Not

Used to form the negative of the verbs be, do and have and modal verbs like can or must and often reduced to not: She did not / didn't see him. It's not / it isn't raining. I can't see from here. He must not go. Don't you eat meat? It's cold, isn't it?
Used to give the following word or phrase a negative meaning, or to reply in the negative: He warned me not to be late. I was sorry not to have seen them. Not everybody agrees. "Who's next? Not me." "What did you do at school? Not a lot." It's not easy being a parent (= it's difficult).
Used after hope, expect, believe, etc. to give a negative reply: "Will she be there? I hope not." "Is it ready? I'm afraid not." (Formal) "Does he know? I believe not."
Or: used to show a negative possibility: I don't know if he's telling the truth or not.
Used to say that you do not want sth or will not allow sth: "Some more? Not for me, thanks." "Can I throw this out? Certainly not."
Not at all: used to politely accept thanks or to agree to sth: "Thanks a lot. Not at all." "Will it bother you if I smoke? Not at all."
Not mind: to not care or not be concerned about sth: "Would you like tea or coffee? I don't mind - either's fine." Don't mind her - she didn't mean what she said. Don't mind me (= don't let me disturb you) - I'll just sit here quietly.
Not mind doing sth: to be willing to do sth: I don't mind helping if you can't find anyone else.

Never

Not at any time, not on any occasion: You never help me. He has never been abroad. "Would you vote for him? Never. I work for a company called Orion Technology." Never heard of them. Never in all my life have I seen such a horrible thing. Never ever tell anyone your password.
Used to emphasize a negative statement instead of "not": I never knew (= didn't know until now) you had a twin sister. (Especially BrE) Someone might find out, and that would never do (= that is not acceptable). He never so much as smiled (= did not smile even once). (Especially BrE) "I told my boss exactly what I thought of her. You never did!" (= Surely you didn't!) (BrE, slang) "You took my bike. No, I never." (Old-fashioned or humorous) Never fear (= Do not worry), everything will be all right.
IDIOMS
On the never-never: (BrE, Informal) on hire purchase (= by making payments over a long period): to buy a new car on the never-never
Well, I never (did)! (Old-fashioned) used to express surprise or disapproval.
(Informal) used to show that you are very surprised about sth because you do not believe it is possible: "I got the job. Never!"
Never mind
  • Used to tell sb not to worry or be upset: Have you broken it? Never mind, we can buy another one.
  • Used to suggest that sth is not important: This isn't where I intended to take you - but never mind, it's just as good.
  • Used to emphasize that what is true about the first thing you have said is even more true about the second. SYN let alone: I never thought she'd win once, never mind twice!
Never mind (about) (doing) sth: used to tell sb they shouldn't think about sth or do sth because it is not as important as sth else, or because you will do it: Never mind your car - what about the damage to my fence? Never mind washing the dishes - I'll do them later.
Never you mind: used to tell sb not to ask about sth because you are not going to tell them: "Who told you about it? Never you mind!" Never you mind how I found out - it's true, isn't it?

Seldom - Rarely

Seldom: Not often. SYN rarely: He had seldom seen a child with so much talent. She seldom, if ever, goes to the theatre. They seldom watch television these days. (Literary) Seldom had he seen such beauty.
Rarely: not very often: She is rarely seen in public nowadays. We rarely agree on what to do. A rarely performed play. Rarely has a debate attracted so much media attention.

Scarcely

Only just, almost not: I can scarcely believe it. We scarcely ever meet. Scarcely a week goes by without some new scandal in the papers.
Used to say that sth happens immediately after sth else happens: He had scarcely put the phone down when the doorbell rang. Scarcely had the game started when it began to rain.
Used to suggest that sth is not at all reasonable or likely: It was scarcely an occasion for laughter. She could scarcely complain, could she?

Nor

Neither... nor.../ not ... nor ... and not: She seemed neither surprised nor worried. He wasn't there on Monday. Nor on Tuesday, for that matter. (Formal) Not a building nor a tree was left standing.
Used before a positive verb to agree with sth negative that has just been said: She doesn't like them and nor does Jeff. "I'm not going. Nor am I."

Neither

Not one nor the other of two things or people: Neither answer is correct. Neither of them has / have a car. They produced two reports, neither of which contained any useful suggestions. "Which do you like? Neither. I think they're both ugly."
Used to show that a negative statement is also true of sb/sth else: He didn't remember and neither did I. I hadn't been to New York before and neither had Jane. "I can't understand a word of it. Neither can I." (Informal) "I don't know. Me neither."
Neither ... nor ... used to show that a negative statement is true of two things: I neither knew nor cared what had happened to him. Their house is neither big nor small. Neither the TV nor the video actually work / works.

Either

Used after negative phrases to state that a feeling or situation is similar to one already mentioned: Pete can't go and I can't either. (NAmE, Informal) "I don't like it. Me either." (= Neither do I).
Used to add extra Information to a statement: I know a good Italian restaurant. It's not far from here, either.
Either ... or ... used to show a choice of two things: Well, I think she's either Russian or Polish. I'm going to buy either a camera or a DVD player with the money. Either he could not come or he did not want to.
Neither / either
After neither and either you use a singular verb: Neither candidate was selected for the job.
Neither of and either of are followed by a plural noun or pronoun and a singular or plural verb. A plural verb is more Informal: Neither of my parents speaks / speak a foreign language.
When "...neither... nor..." or "...either... or..." are used with two singular nouns, the verb can be singular or plural. A plural verb is more Informal.

Under No Circumstances

In / under no circumstances: used to emphasize that sth should never happen or be allowed: Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money. Don't open the door, in any circumstances.
In / under the circumstances: used before or after a statement to show that you have thought about the conditions that affect a situation before making a decision or a statement: Under the circumstances, it seemed better not to tell him about the accident. She did the job very well in the circumstances.

Whatever

Any or every, anything or everything: Take whatever action is needed. Do whatever you like.
Used when you are saying that it does not matter what sb does or what happens, because the result will be the same: Whatever decision he made I would support it. You have our support, whatever you decide.
(Especially BrE) used in questions to express surprise or confusion: Whatever do you mean? Chocolate - flavoured carrots! Whatever next?
(Informal, ironic) used as a reply to tell sb that you do not care what happens or that you are not interested in what they are talking about: "You should try a herbal remedy. Yeah, whatever."
(Informal) used to say that you do not mind what you do, have, etc. and that anything is acceptable: "What would you like to do today? Whatever."

Whatsoever

(Also whatsoever) no, nothing, none, etc.: not at all, not of any kind: They received no help whatever. "Is there any doubt about it? None whatsoever."
(Informal) used to say that it does not matter what sb does, or what happens, because the result will be the same: We told him we'd back him whatever.

Without

Not having, experiencing or showing sth: They had gone two days without food. He found the place without difficulty. She spoke without much enthusiasm.
Not in the company of sb: Don't go without me.
Not using or taking sth: Can you see without your glasses? Don't go out without your coat.
Without (sb) doing sth not doing the action mentioned: He left without saying goodbye. The party was organized without her knowing anything about it. You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs. Without wanting to criticize, I think you could have done better. (= Used before you make a critical comment)
Not having or showing sth: Do you want a room with a bath or one without? If there's none left we'll have to do without. I'm sure we'll manage without.

Modal Verbs: Need - Used to

Need

To require sth/sb because they are essential or very important, not just because you would like to have them: [vn] Do you need any help? It's here if you need it. Don't go - I might need you. They badly needed a change. Food aid is urgently needed. What do you need your own computer for? You can use ours. I don't need your comments, thank you. [V to INF] I need to get some sleep. He needs to win this game to stay in the match. You don't need to leave yet, do you? [V _Ing, v to INF] This shirt needs washing. This shirt needs to be washed.
[V to Inf] used to show what you should or have to do: All you need to do is complete this form. I didn't need to go to the bank after all - Mary lent me the money.

Idioms
Need (to have) your head examined: (Informal) to be crazy
(Negative need not, short form needn't (BrE) need (not) do sth | need (not) have done sth used to state that sth is/was not necessary or that only very little is/was necessary; used to ask if sth is/was necessary: You needn't finish that work today. You needn't have hurried (= it was not necessary for you to hurry, but you did). I need hardly tell you (= you must already know) that the work is dangerous. If she wants anything, she need only ask. All you need bring are sheets. Need you have paid so much?

Grammar
In BrE there are two separate verbs need: Need as a main verb has the question form do you need? The negative you don't need and the past forms needed, did you need? And didn't need. It has two meanings:
  • To require something or to think that something is necessary: Do you need any help? I needed to get some sleep.
  • To have to or to be obliged to do sth: Will we need to show our passports?
Need as a modal verb has: need for all forms of the present tense, need you? As the question form and need not (needn't) as the negative. The past is need have, needn't have. It is used to say that something is or is not necessary: Need I pay the whole amount now?
In NAmE only the main verb is used. This leads to some important differences in the use and meaning of need in British and American English.
In NAmE it is more common for need to be used to speak about what is necessary, rather than about what you must do: I don't need to go home yet - it's still early. (BrE and NAmE = it isn't necessary) You don't need to go home yet - we never go to bed before midnight. (BrE = you don't have to.)
The difference is even more noticeable in the past tenses: He didn't need to go to hospital, but he went just to reassure himself. (NAmE) He needn't have gone to hospital, but he went just to reassure himself. (BrE = he did something that wasn't necessary.) He didn't need to go to hospital after all - he only had a few bruises. (BrE= he didn't go.)

Used to

Used to say that sth happened continuously or frequently during a period in the past: I used to live in London. We used to go sailing on the lake in summer I didn't use to like him much when we were at school. You used to see a lot of her, didn't you?

Used to / be used to
You use used to do sth to talk about something that happened regularly or was the case in the past, but is not now: I used to smoke, but I gave up a couple of years ago.
You use be used to sth / to doing sth to talk about something that you are familiar with so that it no longer seems new or strange to you: We're used to the noise from the traffic now. I'm used to getting up early. You can also use get used to sth: Don't worry - you'll soon get used to his sense of humour. I didn't think I could ever get used to living in a big city after living in the country.

Grammar
Except in negatives and questions, the correct form is used to: I used to go there every Saturday. I use to go there every Saturday.
To form questions, use did: Did she use to have long hair? Note that the correct spelling is use to, not "used to". The negative form is usually "didn't use to", but in BrE this is quite Informal and is not usually used in writing. The negative form used not to (rather formal) and the question form used you to...? (Old-fashioned and very formal) are only used in BrE, usually in writing.