The Adventures of Tom Sawyer - Mark Twain

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is an 1876 novel about a young boy growing up along the Mississippi River. The story is set in the fictional town of St. Petersburg, inspired by Hannibal, Missouri, where Twain lived. 

Tom Sawyer lives with his Aunt Polly and his half-brother Sid. Tom dirties his clothes in a fight and is made to whitewash the fence the next day as punishment. He cleverly persuades his friends to trade him small treasures for the privilege of doing his work. He then trades the treasures for Sunday School tickets which one normally receives for memorizing verses, redeeming them for a Bible, much to the surprise and bewilderment of the superintendent who thought "it was simply preposterous that this boy had warehoused two thousand sheaves of Scriptural wisdom on his premises - a dozen would strain his capacity, without a doubt." 

Tom falls in love with Becky Thatcher, a new girl in town, and persuades her to get "engaged" by kissing him. But their romance collapses when she learns Tom has been "engaged" previously to Amy Lawrence. Shortly after Becky shuns him, he accompanies Huckleberry Finn to the graveyard at night, where they witness the murder of Dr. Robinson.

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Enjoy your reading!!!

New Round-Up 4 - Verginia Evans and Jenny Dooley

Grammar can be fun! Students will find grammar practice enjoyable with New Round-Up.

Clear grammar tables and explanations combined with lots of practice make understanding the language easy for young learner. 

Lessons provide a variety of games and written exercises and students will have plenty of opportunities for additional practice with the interactive student CD-ROM.

Please click here to download Student's Book, Audio, Teacher's Book and CD-ROM.

The Uses of Verb "To Do"

  • [Vn] used to refer to actions that you do not mention by name or do not know about: What are you doing this evening? The Company ought to do something about the poor service. There's nothing to do (= no means of passing the time in an enjoyable way) in this place. There's nothing we can do about it (= we can't change the situation). What can I do for you (= how can I help)?
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] Do (as) to act or behave in the way mentioned: Do as you're told! They are free to do as they please. You would do well to (= I advise you to) consider all the options before buying.
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] Used to ask or talk about the success or progress of sb/sth: How is the business doing? She did well out of (= made a big profit from) the deal. He's doing very well at school (= his work is good). Both mother and baby are doing well (= after the birth of the baby). (Informal) How are you doing (= how are you)?
  • [Vn] to work at or perform an activity or a task: I'm doing some research on the subject. I have a number of things to do today. I do aerobics once a week. Let's do (= meet for) lunch. (Informal) Sorry. I don't do funny (= I can't be funny).
  • [Vn] used with nouns to talk about tasks such as cleaning, washing, arranging, etc.: to do (= wash) the dishes to do (= arrange) the flowers. I like the way you've done your hair.
  • [Vn] do the ironing, cooking, shopping, etc. | do some, a little, etc. acting, writing, etc. to perform the activity or task mentioned: I like listening to the radio when I'm doing the ironing.
  • [Vn] (usually used in questions) to work at sth as a job: What do you do (= what is your job)? What does she want to do when she leaves school? What did she do for a living?
  • [Vn] to learn or study sth: I'm doing physics, biology and chemistry. Have you done any (= studied anything by) Keats?
  • [Vn] to find the answer to sth; to solve sth: I can't do this sum. Are you good at doing crosswords?
  • Do sth (for sb)/ do (sb) sth to produce or make sth: [vn] to do a drawing / painting / sketch. Does this pub do (= provide) lunches? Who's doing (= organizing and preparing) the food for the wedding reception? [Vn, vnn] I'll do a copy for you. I'll do you a copy.
  • [Vn] to perform or produce a play, an opera, etc.: The local dramatic society is doing "Hamlet" next month.
  • [Vn] to copy sb's behaviour or the way sb speaks, sings, etc., especially in order to make people laugh: He does a great Elvis Presley. Can you do a Welsh accent?
  • Have / be done | get sth done to finish sth: [v] Sit there and wait till I've done. [V _Ing] I've done talking - let's get started. [Vn] did you get your article done in time?
  • [Vn] to travel a particular distance: How many miles did you do during your tour? My car does 40 miles to the gallon (= uses one gallon of petrol / gas to travel 40 miles).
  • [Vn] to complete a journey / trip: We did the round trip in two hours.
  • [Vn] to travel at or reach a particular speed: The car was doing 90 miles an hour.
  • [Vn] (Informal) to visit a place as a tourist: We did Tokyo in three days.
  • [Vn] to spend a period of time doing sth: She did a year at college, but then dropped out. He did six years (= in prison) for armed robbery.
  • [Vn] to deal with or attend to sb/sth: The hairdresser said she could do me (= cut my hair) at three.
  • Do (for sb/sth) | do (as sth) to be suitable or be enough for sb/sth: [v] These shoes won't do for the party. "Can you lend me some money?" "Sure - will $20 do?" The box will do fine as a table. [Vn] (Especially BrE) This room will do me nicely, thank you (= it has everything I need).
  • [Vn] to cook sth: How would you like your steak done?
  • [Vn] [usually passive] (BrE, Informal) to cheat sb: This isn't a genuine antique - you've been done.
  • [Vn] (BrE) do sb (for sth) (Informal) to punish sb: They did him for tax evasion. She got done for speeding.
  • [Vn] (Informal) to steal from a place: The gang did a warehouse and a supermarket.
  • [Vn] (Informal) to take an illegal drug: He doesn't smoke, drink or do drugs.
Be / have to do with sb/sth: To be about or connected with sb/sth: "What do you want to see me about?" "It's to do with that letter you sent me."
Have (got) something, nothing, a lot, etc. to do with sb/sth: Used to talk about how much sb/sth is connected with sb/sth: Her job has something to do with computers. "How much do you earn?" "What's it got to do with you?" Hard work has a lot to do with (= is an important reason for) her success. We don't have very much to do with our neighbours (= we do not speak to them very often). I'd have nothing to do with him, if I were you.
It won't do: (Especially BrE) used to say that a situation is not acceptable and should be changed or improved: This is the third time you've been late this week; it simply won't do.
Not do anything / a lot / much for sb: (Informal) used to say that sth does not make sb look attractive: That hairstyle doesn't do anything for her.
Nothing doing: (Informal) used to refuse a request: "Can you lend me ten dollars?" "Nothing doing!"
No you don't: (Informal) used to show that you intend to stop sb from doing sth that they were going to do: Sharon went to get into the taxi. "Oh no, you don't," said Steve.
That does it: (Informal) used to show that you will not accept sth any longer: That does it, I'm off. I'm not having you swear at me like that.
That's done it: (Informal) used to say that an accident, a mistake, etc. has spoiled or ruined sth: That's done it. You've completely broken it this time.
That will do: Used to order sb to stop doing or saying sth: That'll do, children - you're getting far too noisy.
What do you do for sth?: Used to ask how sb manages to obtain the thing mentioned: What do you do for entertainment out here?
What is sb/sth doing?: Used to ask why sb/sth is in the place mentioned: What are these shoes doing on my desk?
Do away with sb / yourself: (Informal) to kill sb/yourself
Do away with sth: (Informal) to stop doing or having sth, to make sth end. SYN abolish: He thinks it's time we did away with the monarchy.
Do sb/sth down: (BrE, Informal) to criticize sb/sth unfairly
Do for sb/sth: [Usually passive] (Informal) to ruin, destroy or kill sb/sth: Without that contract, we're done for.
Do sb / yourself in (Informal)
  • To kill sb/yourself.
  • [Usually passive] to make sb very tired: Come and sit down - you look done in.
Do sth in: (Informal) to injure a part of the body: He did his back in lifting heavy furniture.
Do sb out of sth: (Informal) to unfairly prevent sb from having what they ought to have: She was done out of her promotion.
Do sb over: (Informal, especially BrE) to attack and beat sb severely: He was done over by a gang of thugs.
Do sth over:
  • To clean or decorate sth again: The paintwork will need doing over soon.
  • (NAmE) to do sth again: She insisted that everything be done over.
  • (BrE, Informal) to enter a building by force and steal things: He got home to find that his flat had been done over.
Do up: To be fastened: The skirt does up at the back.
Do sth up
  • To fasten a coat, skirt, etc.: He never bothers to do his jacket up. OPP undo
  • To make sth into a package. SYN wrap: She was carrying a package done up in brown paper.
  • (BrE) to repair and decorate a house, etc.: He makes money by buying old houses and doing them up.
Do yourself up: (Informal) to make yourself more attractive by putting on make-up, attractive clothes...
Do sth with sb/sth: (Used in negative sentences and questions with what): I don't know what to do with (= how to use) all the food that's left over. What have you done with (= where have you put) my umbrella? What have you been doing with yourselves (= how have you been passing the time)?
Do with out (sb/sth): To manage without sb/sth: She can't do without a secretary. If they can't get it to us in time, we'll just have to do without. [+ -Ing] (Ironic) I could have done without being (= I wish I had not been) woken up at three in the morning.
Auxiliary verb
Used before a full verb to form negative sentences and questions: I don't like fish. They didn't go to Paris. Don't forget to write. Does she speak French?
Used to make question tags (= short questions at the end of statements): You live in New York, don't you? She doesn't work here, does she?
Used to avoid repeating a full verb: He plays better than he did a year ago. She works harder than he does. "Who won?" "I did." "I love peach." "So do I." "I don't want to go back." "Neither do I."
Used when no other auxiliary verb is present, to emphasize what you are saying: He does look tired. She did at least write to say thank you. (BrE) do shut up!
Used to change the order of the subject and verb when an adverb is moved to the front: Not only does she speak Spanish, she's also good with computers.
Household jobs: Do or Make?
To talk about jobs in the home you can use such phrases as wash the dishes, clean the kitchen floor, set the table, etc. In conversation the verb "do" is often used instead: Let me do the dishes. Michael said he would do the kitchen floor. It's your turn to do the table. Do is often used with nouns ending _Ing: to do the shopping / cleaning / ironing / vacuuming.
The verb "make" is used especially in the phrase make the beds and when you are talking about preparing or cooking food: He makes a great lasagne. I'll make breakfast while you're having a shower. You can also say get, get ready and, especially in NAmE, fix for preparing meals: Can you get dinner while I put the kids to bed? Sit down - I'll fix supper for you.

The Uses of Verb "To Be"

  • Linking verb [v-n] there is / are to exist; to be present: Is there a God? Once upon a time there was a princess... I tried phoning but there was no answer. There's a bank down the road.
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] To be located; to be in a place: The town is three miles away. If you're looking for your file, it's on the table. Mary's upstairs.
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] To happen at a time or in a place: The party is on Friday evening. The meetings are always in the main conference room.
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] To remain in a place: She has been in her room for hours. They're here till Christmas.
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] To attend an event; to be present in a place: I'll be at the party. He'll be here soon (= will arrive soon).
  • [V + adv. / Prep.] (Only used in the perfect tenses) to visit or call: I've never been to Spain. He had been abroad many times. (BrE) Has the postman been yet? (NAmE) Has the mailman come yet?
  • [V] "be" from... used to say where sb was born or where their home is: She's from Italy.
  • Linking verb used when you are naming people or things, describing them or giving more information about them: [v-n] "Who is that?" "It's my brother." She's a great beauty. He wants to be (= become) a pilot when he grows up. [V-adj] It's beautiful! Life is unfair. He is ten years old. "How are you?" "I'm very well, thanks." Be quick! [V (that)] The fact is (that) we don't have enough money. [V _Ing, v to INF] The problem is getting it all done in the time available. The problem is to get it all done in the time available.
  • Linking verb it is / was used when you are describing a situation or saying what you think about it: [v-adj] It was really hot in the sauna. It's strange how she never comes to see us any more. He thinks it's clever to make fun of people. [V-n] It would be a shame if you lost it. It's going to be a great match.
  • Linking verb it is / was used to talk about time: [v-n] It's two thirty. [V-adj] It was late at night when we finally arrived.
  • Linking verb [v-n] used to say what sth is made of: Is your jacket real leather?
  • Linking verb [v] "be" mine, yours, etc. | be for me, you, etc. used to say whom sth belongs to or whom it is intended for: The money's not yours, it's John's. This package is for you.
  • Linking verb [v-n] to cost: "How much is that dress?" "Eighty dollars."
  • Linking verb [v-n] to be equal to: Three and three is six. How much is a thousand pounds in euros? London is not England (= do not think that all of England is like London).
  • Linking verb [v-n] be everything, nothing, etc. (to sb) used to say how important sth is to sb: Money isn't everything (= it is not the only important thing). A thousand dollars is nothing to somebody as rich as he is.
    Her career is the be-all and end-all of her existence.

  • As / that was: As sb/sth used to be called: Jill Davis that was (= before her marriage) the Soviet Union, as was.
  • (He, she, etc. has) been and done sth: (BrE, Informal) used to show that you are surprised and annoyed by sth that sb has done: Someone's been and parked in front of the entrance!
  • If it wasn't / weren't for...: Used to say that sb/sth stopped sb/sth from happening: If it weren't for you, I wouldn't be alive today.
  • Leave / let sb/sth be: To leave sb/sth alone without disturbing them or it: Leave her be, she obviously doesn't want to talk about it. Let the poor dog be (= don't annoy it).

  • Auxiliary verb
    • Used with a past participle to form the passive: He was killed in the war. Where were they made? The house was still being built. You will be told what to do.
    • Used with a present participle to form progressive tenses: I am studying Chinese. I'll be seeing him soon. What have you been doing this week? I'm always being criticized.
    • Used to make question tags (= short questions added to the end of statements): You're not hungry, are you? Ben's coming, isn't he? The old theatre was pulled down, wasn't it?
    • Used to avoid repeating the full form of a verb in the passive or a progressive tense: Karen wasn't beaten in any of her games, but all the others were. "Are you coming with us?" "No, I'm not."
    • Be to do sth used to say what must or should be done: I am to call them once I reach the airport. You are to report this to the police. What is to be done about this problem?
    • Be to do sth used to say what is arranged to happen: They are to be married in June.
    • Be to do sth used to say what happened later: He was to regret that decision for the rest of his life. (= he did regret it).
    • Be not, never, etc. to be done used to say what could not or did not happen: Anna was nowhere to be found (= we could not find her anywhere). He was never to see his wife again (= although he did not know it would be so at the time, he did not see her again). She wanted to write a successful novel, but it was not to be (= it turned out never to happen).
    • If sb / it were to do sth... | were sb / it to do sth... (formal) used to express a condition: If we were to offer you more money, would you stay? Were we to offer you more money, would you stay?

    Time Clauses


    (Used in questions) at what time; on what occasion: When did you last see him? When can I see you? When (= in what circumstances) would such a solution be possible?
    Used after an expression of time to mean "at which" or "on which": Sunday is the only day when I can relax. There are times when I wonder why I do this job.
    At which time; on which occasion: The last time I went to Scotland was in May, when the weather was beautiful.
    What / which time: Until when can you stay? "I've got a new job. Since when?"
    • At or during the time that: I loved history when I was at school.
    • After: Call me when you've finished.
    • At any time that; whenever: Can you spare five minutes when it's convenient?
    • Just after which: He had just drifted off to sleep when the phone rang.
    • Considering that: How can they expect to learn anything when they never listen?
    • Although: She claimed to be 18, when I know she's only 16.


    During the time that sth is happening. SYN when: We must have been burgled while we were asleep. Her parents died while she was still at school. While I was waiting at the bus stop, three buses went by in the opposite direction.
    At the same time as sth else is happening: You can go swimming while I'm having lunch. Shoes mended while you wait
    Used to contrast two things: While Tom's very good at science, his brother is absolutely hopeless.
    (Used at the beginning of a sentence) although; despite the fact that...: While I am willing to help, I do not have much time available.
    Until: I waited while six o'clock.
    While you're / I'm etc. at it: used to suggest that sb could do sth while they are doing sth else: "I'm just going to buy some postcards. Can you get me some stamps while you're at it?"
    [Sing.] A period of time: They chatted for a while. I'll be back in a little while (= a short time). I haven't seen him for quite a while (= a fairly long time). They walked back together, talking all the while (= all the time).
    While sth away: to spend time in a pleasant lazy way: We whiled away the time reading and playing cards.

    Until/ Till

    Until: (Also Informal till) up to the point in time or the event mentioned: Let's wait until the rain stops. Until she spoke I hadn't realized she wasn't English. You're not going out until you've finished this. Until now I have always lived alone. He continued working up until his death. The Street is full of traffic from morning till night. You can stay on the bus until London (= until you reach London).
    Till: We're open till 6 o'clock. Can't you wait till we get home? Just wait till you see it. It's great.
    "Till" is generally felt to be more Informal than "Until" and is used much less often in writing. At the beginning of a sentence, until is usually used.


    In a short time from now; a short time after sth else has happened: We'll be home soon. / We'll soon be home. She sold the house soon after her husband died. I soon realized the mistake. It soon became clear that the programme was a failure. (Informal) See you soon!
    Early: quickly: How soon can you get here? We'll deliver the goods as soon as we can. Please send it as soon as possible. Next Monday is the soonest we can deliver. They arrived home sooner than expected. The sooner we set off, the sooner we will arrive.
    No sooner said than done: used to say that sth was, or will be, done immediately.
    No sooner... than...: used to say that sth happens immediately after sth else: No sooner had she said it than she burst into tears.
    The sooner the better: very soon; as soon as possible: "When shall I tell him? The sooner the better."
    Sooner or Later: at some time in the future, even if you are not sure exactly when: Sooner or later you will have to make a decision.
    Sooner rather than later: after a short time rather than after a long time: We urged them to sort out the problem sooner rather than later.


    Lasting or taking a great amount of time or more time than usual: He's been ill (for) a long time. I like it now the days are getting longer (= it stays light for more time each day). A long book / film / list (= taking a lot of time to read / watch / deal with) Nurses have to work long hours (= for more hours in the day than is usual). (NAmE) He stared at them for the longest time (= for a very long time) before answering.
    Used for asking or talking about particular periods of time: How long is the course? I think it's only three weeks long. How long a stay did you have in mind?
    Seeming to last or take more time than it really does because, for example, you are very busy or not happy: I'm tired. It's been a long day. We were married for ten long years.
    At long last: after a long time. SYN finally: At long last his prayers had been answered.
    At the longest: not longer than the particular time given: It will take an hour at the longest.
    Go back a long way: (of two or more people) to have known each other for a long time: We go back a long way, he and I.
    Go a long way: (of money, food, etc.) to last a long time: She seems to make her money go a long way. A small amount of this paint goes a long way (= covers a large area). (Ironic) I find that a little of Jerry's company can go a long way (= I quickly get tired of being with him).
    In the long run: concerning a longer period in the future: This measure inevitably means higher taxes in the long run.
    Long time no see: (Informal) used to say hello to sb you have not seen for a long time.
    Take the long view (of sth): to consider what is likely to happen or be important over a long period of time rather than only considering the present situation.
    As / so long as
    • Only if: We'll go as long as the weather is good.
    • Since: to the extent that: So long as there is a demand for these drugs, the financial incentive for drug dealers will be there.
    For (so) long: for (such) a long time: Will you be away for long? I'm sorry I haven't written to you for so long.
    Long live sb/sth: used to say that you hope sb/sth will live or last for a long time.
    (For) long / (for) a long time
    Both (for) long and (for) a long time are used as expressions of time. In positive sentences (for) a long time is used: We've been friends a long time. (For) long is not used in positive sentences unless it is used with too, enough, as, so, seldom, etc.: I stayed out in the sun for too long. You've been waiting long enough. Both (for) long and (for) a long time can be used in questions, but (for) long is usually preferred: Have you been waiting long?
    In negative sentences (for) a long time sometimes has a different meaning from (for) long: Compare: I haven't been here for a long time (= It is a long time since the last time I was here) and I haven't been here long (= I arrived here only a short time ago).

    Modal Verbs: Shall - Should


    Becoming old-fashioned) used with "I and We" for talking about or predicting the future: This time next week I shall be in Scotland. We shan't be gone long. I said that I should be pleased to help.
    Used in questions with "I and we" for making offers or suggestions or asking advice: Shall I send you the book? What shall we do this weekend? Let's look at it again, shall we?
    (Old-fashioned or formal) used to show that you are determined, or to give an order or instruction: He is determined that you shall succeed. Candidates shall remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected.
    Shall / will
    In modern English the traditional difference between "Shall and Will" have almost disappeared, and shall is not used very much at all, especially in NAmE. Shall is now only used with "I and We", and often sounds formal and old-fashioned. People are more likely to say: "I'll (= I will) be late and you'll (= you will) apologize immediately. No I won't!"
    In BrE shall is still used with "I and We" in questions or when you want to make a suggestion or an offer: What shall I wear to the party? Shall we order some coffee? I'll drive, shall I?


    Used to show what is right, appropriate, etc., especially when criticizing sb's actions: You shouldn't drink and drive. He should have been more careful. A present for me? You shouldn't have! (= Used to thank sb politely)
    Used for giving or asking for advice: You should stop worrying about it should I call him and apologize? I should wait a little longer, if I were you.
    Used to say that you expect sth is true or will happen: We should arrive before dark. I should have finished the book by Friday. The roads should be less crowded today.
    Used to say that sth that was expected has not happened: It should be snowing now, according to the weather forecast. The bus should have arrived ten minutes ago.
    (BrE, formal) used after I or we instead of would for describing what you would do if sth else happened first: If I were asked to work on Sundays, I should resign.
    (Formal) used to refer to a possible event or situation: If you should change your mind, do let me know. In case you should need any help, here's my number. Should anyone call (= if anyone calls), please tell him or her I'm busy.
    Used, as the past form of shall when reporting what sb has said: He asked me what time he should come. (= His words were: "What time shall I come?") (BrE, formal) I said (that) I should be glad to help.
    (BrE) used after that when sth is suggested or arranged: She recommended that I should take some time off. In order that training should be effective it must be planned systematically.
    Help Note: In both NAmE and BrE this idea can be expressed without "should": She recommended that I take some time off. In order that training be effective...
    Used after that after many adjectives that describe feelings: I'm anxious that we should allow plenty of time. I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to you.
    (BrE, formal) used with I and we in polite requests: I should like to call my lawyer. We should be grateful for your help.
    Used with "I and we" to give opinions that you are not certain about: I should imagine it would take about three hours. "Is this enough food for everyone? I should think so." "Will it matter? I shouldn't think so."
    Used for expressing strong agreement: "I know it's expensive but it will last for years. I should hope so too!" "Nobody will oppose it. I should think not!"
    Why, how, who, what + sb/sth do use to refuse sth or to show that you are annoyed at a request; used to express surprise about an event or a situation: Why should I help him? He's never done anything for me. How should I know where you've left your bag?
    Used to tell sb that sth would amuse or surprise them if they saw or experienced it: You should have seen her face when she found out!
    Should / ought / had better
    Should and ought to: are both used to say that something is the best thing or the right thing to do, but should is much more common: You should take the baby to the doctor's. I ought to give up smoking. In questions, should is usually used instead of ought to: Should we call the doctor?
    Had better can also be used to say what is the best thing to do in a situation that is happening now: We'd better hurry or we'll miss the train.
    You form the past by using should have or ought to have: She should have asked for some help. You ought to have been more careful.
    The forms "should not or shouldn't" (and ought not to or oughtn't to, which are rare in NAmE and formal in BrE) are used to say that something is a bad idea or the wrong thing to do: You shouldn't drive so fast.
    The forms "should not have or shouldn't have" and, much less frequently, "ought not to have or oughtn't to have" are used to talk about the past: I'm sorry; I shouldn't have lost my temper.
    Should / would
    In modern English, the traditional difference between "should and would" in reported sentences, conditions, requests, etc. has disappeared and should is not used very much at all. In spoken English the short form: "'d" is usually used: I said I'd (I would) be late. He'd (he would) have liked to be an actor. I'd (I would) really prefer tea.
    The main use of should now is to tell somebody what he or she ought to do, to give advice, or to add emphasis: We should really go and visit him or her soon. You should have seen it!

    Saying - Idioms

    - Absence makes the heart grow fonder: (saying) used to say that when you are away from sb that you love, you love them even more.
    - There’s no accounting for taste: (saying) used to say how difficult it is to understand why sb likes sb/sth that you do not like at all: She thinks he’s wonderful—oh well, there’s no accounting for taste.
    - Actions speak louder than words: (saying) what a person actually does means more than what they say they will do.
    - It’ll be all right on the night: (saying) used to say that a performance, an event, etc. will be successful even if the preparations for it have not gone well.
    - The apple doesn’t fall/ never falls far from the tree: (saying, especially NAmE) a child usually behaves in a similar way to his or her parent(s).
    - If you can’t beat them, join them: (saying) if you cannot defeat sb or be as successful as they are, then it is more sensible to join them in what they are doing and perhaps get some advantage for yourself by doing so.
    - Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: (saying) people all have different ideas about what is beautiful.
    - Beauty is only skin-deep: (saying) how a person looks is less important than their character.
    - Beggars can’t be choosers: (saying) people say beggars can’t be choosers when there is no choice and sb must be satisfied with what is available.
    - Seeing is believing: (saying) used to say that sb will have to believe that sth is true when they see it, although they do not think it is true now
    A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush: (saying) it is better to keep sth that you already have than to risk losing it by trying to get much more.
    Birds of a feather (flock together): (saying) people of the same sort (are found together).
    Blood is thicker than water: (saying) family relationships are stronger than any others.
    There’s one born every minute: (saying) used to say that sb is very stupid.
    When the cat’s away the mice will play: (saying) people enjoy themselves more and behave with greater freedom when the person in charge of them is not there.
    Charity begins at home: (saying) you should help and care for your own family, etc. before you start helping other people.
    Every cloud has a silver lining: (saying) every sad or difficult situation has a positive side.
    Cut your coat according to your cloth: (saying) to do only what you have enough money to do and no more.
    Too many cooks spoil the broth: (saying) if too many people are involved in doing sth, it will not be done well.
    Don’t count your chickens (before they are hatched): (saying) you should not be too confident that sth will be successful, because sth may still go wrong.
    Curiosity killed the cat: (saying) used to tell sb not to ask questions or try to find out about things that do not concern them.
    Better the devil you know (than the devil you don’t): (saying) used to say that it is easier and wiser to stay in a bad situation that you know and can deal with rather than change to a new situation which may be much worse.
    The devil looks after his own: (saying) bad people often seem to have good luck.
    The devil makes work for idle hands: (saying) people who do not have enough to do often start to do wrong: She blamed the crimes on the local jobless teenagers. ‘The devil makes work for idle hands,’ she would say.
    The die is cast: (saying) used to say that an event has happened or a decision has been made that cannot be changed.
    Discretion is the better part of valour: (saying) you should avoid danger and not take unnecessary risks.
    Every dog has his / its day: (saying) everyone has good luck or success at some point in their life.
    Give a dog a bad name: (saying) when a person already has a bad reputation, it is difficult to change it because others will continue to blame or suspect him/her.
    Why keep a dog and bark yourself? (Informal, saying) if sb can do a task for you, there is no point in doing it yourself.
    The early bird catches the worm: (saying) the person who takes the opportunity to do sth before other people will have an advantage over them.
    Be easier said than done: (saying) to be much more difficult to do than to talk about: ‘Why don’t you get yourself a job?’ ‘That’s easier said than done.’
    Easy come, easy go: (saying) used to mean that sb does not care very much about money or possessions especially if they spend it or lose sth.
    The end justifies the means: (saying) bad or unfair methods of doing sth are acceptable if the result of that action is good or positive.
    An Englishman’s home is his castle (BrE) (US a man’s home is his castle): (saying) a person’s home is a place where they can be private and safe and do as they like.
    Enough already: (Informal, especially NAmE) used to say that sth is annoying or boring and that you want it to stop.
    Enough is enough: (saying) used when you think that sth should not continue any longer.
    Some (people, members, etc.) are more equal than others: (saying) although the members of a society, group, etc. appear to be equal, some, in fact, get better treatment than others.
    What the eye doesn’t see (the heart doesn’t grieve over): (saying) if a person does not know about sth that they would normally disapprove of, then it cannot hurt them: What does it matter if I use his flat while he’s away? What the eye doesn’t see …!
    All’s fair in love and war: (saying) in some situations any type of behaviour is acceptable to get what you want.
    Familiarity breeds contempt: (saying) knowing sb/sth very well may cause you to lose admiration and respect for them / it.
    It’s not over until the fat lady sings: (saying) used for saying that a situation may still change, for example that a contest, election, etc. is not finished yet, and sb still has a chance to win it.
    Like father, like son: (saying) used to say that a son’s character or behaviour is similar to that of his father.
    At first: at or in the beginning: I didn’t like the job much at first. At first I thought he was shy, but then I discovered he was just not interested in other people. (Saying) If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.
    First come, first served: (saying) people will be dealt with, seen, etc. strictly in the order in which they arrive: Tickets are available on a first come, first served basis.
    If you’ve got it, flaunt it: (humorous, saying) used to tell sb that they should not be afraid of allowing other people to see their qualities and abilities.
    A fool and his money are soon parted: (saying) a person who is not sensible usually spends money too quickly or carelessly, or is cheated by others.
    Fools rush in (where angels fear to tread): (saying) people with little experience try to do the difficult or dangerous things which more experienced people would not consider doing.
     (There’s) no fool like an old fool: (saying) an older person who behaves in a stupid way is worse than a younger person who does the same thing, because experience should have taught him or her not to do it.
    Forewarned is forearmed: (saying) if you know about problems, dangers, etc. before they happen, you can be better prepared for them.
    A friend in 'need (is a friend indeed): (saying) a friend who gives you help when you need it (is a true friend).
    Out of the frying pan into the fire: (saying) from a bad situation to one that is worse.
    Two can play at that game: (saying) used to tell sb who has played a trick on you that you can do the same thing to them.
    When the going gets tough (the tough get going): (saying) when conditions or progress become difficult (strong and determined people work even harder to succeed).
    All that glitters / glistens is not gold: (saying) not everything that seems good, attractive, etc. is actually good, etc.
    The grass is (always) greener on the other side (of the fence): (saying) said about people who never seem happy with what they have and always think that other people have a better situation than they have.
    It / money doesn’t grow on trees: (saying) used to tell sb not to use sth or spend money carelessly because you do not have a lot of it.
    Half a loaf is better than no bread: (saying) you should be grateful for sth, even if it is not as good, much, etc. as you really wanted; something is better than nothing.
    All hands on deck (also all hands to the pump): (saying, humorous) everyone helps or must help, especially in a difficult situation: There are 30 people coming to dinner tonight, so it’s all hands on deck.
    Many hands make light work: (saying) used to say that a job is made easier if a lot of people help.
    More haste, less speed: (BrE, saying) you will finish doing sth sooner if you do not try to do it too quickly because you will make fewer mistakes.
    Make hay while the sun shines: (saying) to make good use of opportunities, good conditions, etc. while they last.
    Two heads are better than one: (saying) used to say that two people can achieve more than one person working alone.
    He who hesitates (is lost): (saying) if you delay in doing sth you may lose a good opportunity.
    Home is where the heart is: (saying) a home is where the people you love are.
    Hope springs eternal: (saying) people never stop hoping.
    You can lead / take a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink: (saying) you can give sb the opportunity to do sth, but you cannot force them to do it if they do not want to.
    Ignorance is bliss: (saying) if you do not know about sth, you cannot worry about it: Some doctors believe ignorance is bliss and don’t give their patients all the facts.
    It’s an ill wind (that blows nobody any good): (saying) no problem is so bad that it does not bring some advantage to sb.
    Give sb an inch (and they’ll take a mile / yard): (saying) used to say that if you allow some people a small amount of freedom or power they will see you as weak and try to take a lot more.
    Don’t judge a book by its cover: (saying) used to say that you should not form an opinion about sb/sth from their appearance only.
    Kill the goose that lays the golden egg / eggs: (saying) to destroy sth that would make you rich, successful, etc.
    Better late than never: (saying) used especially when you, or sb else, arrive/ arrives late, or when sth such as success happens late, to say that this is better than not coming or happening at all.
    He who laughs last laughs longest: (saying) used to tell sb not to be too proud of their present success; in the end another person may be more successful.
    Look before you leap: (saying) used to advise sb to think about the possible results or dangers of sth before doing it.
    A leopard cannot change its spots: (saying) people cannot change their character, especially if they have a bad character.
    Where there’s life (, there’s hope): (saying) in a bad situation you must not give up hope because there is always a chance that it will improve.
    Lightning never strikes (in the same place) twice: (saying) an unusual or unpleasant event is not likely to happen in the same place or to the same people twice.
    Live and let live: (saying) used to say that you should accept other people’s opinions and behaviour even though they are different from your own.
    Live to fight another day: (saying) used to say that although you have failed or had a bad experience, you will continue.
    Every man for himself: (saying) people must take care of themselves and not give or expect any help: In business, it’s every man for himself.
    One man’s meat is another man’s poison: (saying) used to say that different people like different things; what one person likes very much, another person does not like at all.
    You can’t keep a good man down: (saying) a person who is determined or wants sth very much will succeed.
    Marry in haste (, repent at leisure): (saying) people who marry quickly, without really getting to know each other, may discover later that they have made a mistake.
    The more the merrier: (saying) the more people or things there are, the better the situation will be or the more fun people will have: ‘Can I bring a friend to your party?’ ‘Sure—the more the merrier!’
    A miss is as good as a mile: (saying) there is no real difference between only just failing in sth and failing in it badly because the result is still the same.
    Money talks: (saying) people who have a lot of money have more power and Influence than others.
    On the money: correct; accurate: His prediction was right on the money.
    Where there’s muck there’s brass: (BrE, saying) used to say that a business activity that is unpleasant or dirty can bring in a lot of money.
    Necessity is the mother of invention: (saying) a difficult new problem forces people to think of a solution to it.
    Needs must (when the Devil drives): (saying) in certain situations it is necessary for you to do sth that you do not like or enjoy.
    No news is good news: (saying) if there were bad news we would hear it, so as we have heard nothing, it is likely that nothing bad has happened.
    Great / tall oaks from little acorns grow: (saying) something large and successful often begins in a very small way.
    You can lead / take a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink: (saying) you can give sb the opportunity to do sth, but you cannot force them to do it if they do not want to.
    You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs: (saying) you cannot achieve sth important without causing a few small problems.
    Once bitten, twice shy: (saying) after an unpleasant experience you are careful to avoid sth similar.
    When you’ve seen, heard, etc. one, you’ve seen, heard, etc. them all: (saying) used to say that all types of the things mentioned are very similar: I don’t like science fiction novels much. When you’ve read one, you’ve read them all.
    You’re only young once: (saying) young people should enjoy themselves as much as possible, because they will have to work and worry later in their lives.
    No pain, no gain: (saying) used to say that you need to suffer if you want to achieve sth.
    He who pays the piper calls the tune: (saying) the person who provides the money for sth can also control how it is spent.
    The pen is mightier than the sword: (saying) people who write books, poems, etc. have a greater effect on history and human affairs than soldiers and wars.
    In for a penny, in for a pound: (BrE, saying) used to say that since you have started to do sth, it is worth spending as much time or money as you need to in order to complete it.
    A penny for your thoughts | a penny for them: (saying) used to ask sb what they are thinking about.
    People (who live) in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones: (saying) you should not criticize other people, because they will easily find ways of criticizing you.
    Pigs might fly (BrE) (NAmE when pigs fly): (ironic, saying) used to show that you do not believe sth will ever happen: ‘With a bit of luck, we’ll be finished by the end of the year.’ ‘Yes, and pigs might fly!’
    Any port in a storm: (saying) if you are in great trouble, you take any help that is offered.
    Possession is nine tenths of the law: (saying) if you already have or control sth, it is difficult for sb else to take it away from you, even if they have the legal right to it.
    The pot calling the kettle black: (saying, Informal) used to say that you should not criticize sb for a fault that you have yourself.
    Practice makes perfect: (saying) a way of encouraging people by telling them that if you do an activity regularly and try to improve your skill, you will become very good at it.
    Prevention is better than cure (BrE) (US an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure): (saying) it is better to stop sth bad from happening rather than try to deal with the problems after it has happened.
    Everyone has their price: (Saying) you can persuade anyone to do sth by giving them more money or sth that they want.
    Pride comes / goes before a fall: (saying) if you have too high an opinion of yourself or your abilities, sth will happen to make you look stupid.
    The proof of the pudding (is in the eating): (saying) you can only judge if sth is good or bad when you have tried it.
    It never rains but it pours (BrE) (NAmE when it rains, it pours): (saying) used to say that when one bad thing happens to you, other bad things happen soon after.
    You reap what you sow: (saying) you have to deal with the bad effects or results of sth that you originally started.
    The road to hell is paved with good intentions: (saying) it is not enough to intend to do good things; you must actually do them.
    Rob Peter to pay Paul: (saying) to borrow money from one person to pay back what you owe to another person; to take money from one thing to use for sth else.
    A rolling stone gathers no moss: (saying) a person who moves from place to place, job to job, etc. does not have a lot of money, possessions or friends but is free from responsibilities
    Rome wasn’t built in a day: (saying) used to say that a complicated task will take a long time and needs patience.
    When in Rome (do as the Romans do): (saying) used to say that when you are in a foreign country, or a situation you are not familiar with, you should behave in the way that the people around you behave.
    A rose by any other name would smell as sweet: (saying) what is important is what people or things are, not what they are called.
    Better safe than sorry: (saying) used to say that it is wiser to be too careful than to act too quickly and do sth you may later wish you had not.
    Safety first: (saying) safety is the most important thing.
    There’s safety in numbers: (saying) being in a group makes you safer and makes you feel more confident.
    What’s sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander: (old-fashioned, saying) what one person is allowed to do, another person must be allowed to do in a similar situation.
    Least said soonest mended: (BrE, saying) a bad situation will pass or be forgotten most quickly if nothing more is said about it.
    Never say die: (saying) do not stop hoping.
    You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours: (saying) used to say that if sb helps you, you will help them, even if this is unfair to others.
    Share and share alike: (saying) used to say that everyone should share things equally and in a fair way.
    Out of sight, out of mind: (saying) used to say sb will quickly be forgotten when they are no longer with you.
    Silence is golden: (saying) it is often best not to say anything.
    It’s six of one and half a dozen of the other: (saying) used to say that there is not much real difference between two possible choices.
    Let sleeping dogs lie: (saying) to avoid mentioning a subject or sth that happened in the past, in order to avoid any problems or arguments.
    There’s many a slip twixt cup and lip: (saying) nothing is completely certain until it really happens because things can easily go wrong.
    It’s a small world: (saying) used to express your surprise when you meet sb you know in an unexpected place, or when you are talking to sb and find out that you both know the same person.
     (There is) no smoke without fire (BrE) (NAmE where there’s smoke, there’s fire): (saying) if sth bad is being said about sb/sth, it usually has some truth in it.
    It takes all sorts (to make a world): (saying) used to say that you think sb’s behaviour is very strange or unusual but that everyone is different and likes different things.
    The spirit is willing (but the flesh is weak): (humorous, saying) you intend to do good things but you are too lazy, weak or busy to actually do them.
    One step forward, two steps back: (saying) used to say that every time you make progress, sth bad happens that means that the situation is worse than before.
    Still waters run deep: (saying) a person who seems to be quiet or shy may surprise you by knowing a lot or having deep feelings.
    A stitch in time (saves nine): (saying) it is better to deal with sth immediately because if you wait it may become worse or more difficult and cause extra work.
    The streets are paved with gold: (saying) used to say that it seems easy to make money in a place.
    Strike while the iron is hot: (saying) to make use of an opportunity immediately.
    Nothing succeeds like success: (saying) when you are successful in one area of your life, it often leads to success in other areas.
    One swallow doesn’t make a summer: (saying) you must not take too seriously a small sign that sth is happening or will happen in the future, because the situation could change.
     (You can’t) teach an old dog new tricks: (saying) (you cannot) successfully make people change their ideas, methods of work, etc., when they have had them for a long time.
    You can never tell | you never can tell: (saying) you can never be sure, for example because things are not always what they appear to be.
    These things are sent to try us: (saying) used to say that you should accept an unpleasant situation or event because you cannot change it.
    Time flies: (saying) time seems to pass very quickly: How time flies! I’ve got to go now. Time has flown since the holiday began.
    Time is money: (saying) time is valuable, and should not be wasted.
    Time (alone) will tell | only time will tell: (saying) used to say that you will have to wait for some time to find out the result of a situation: Only time will tell if the treatment has been successful.
    (It) does (exactly) what it says on the tin: (Informal, saying) used to say that sth is as good or effective as it claims to be, or that it really does what it claims to do. This expression is especially used when you are comparing publicity and advertisements with actual products: I paid £150 for this camera and am more than happy with it. It does exactly what it says on the tin!
    Touch wood (BrE) (NAmE knock on wood): (saying) used when you have just mentioned some way in which you have been lucky in the past, to avoid bringing bad luck: I’ve been driving for over 20 years and never had an accident—touch wood!
    Truth is stranger than fiction: (saying) used to say that things that actually happen are often more surprising than stories that are invented.
    (The) truth will out: (saying) used to say that people will find out the true facts about a situation even if you try to keep them secret.
    One good turn deserves another: (saying) you should help sb who has helped you.
    Never the twain shall meet: (saying) used to say that two things are so different that they cannot exist together.
    Variety is the spice of life: (saying) new and exciting experiences make life more interesting.
    Nothing ventured, nothing gained: (saying) used to say that you have to take risks if you want to achieve things and be successful.
    Virtue is its own reward: (saying) the reward for acting in a moral or correct way is the knowledge that you have done so, and you should not expect more than this, for example praise from other people or payment.
    Walls have ears: (saying) used to warn people to be careful what they say because other people may be listening.
    Waste not, want not: (saying) if you never waste anything, especially food or money, you will always have it when you need it.
    A watched pot never boils: (saying) used to say that when you are impatient for sth to happen, time seems to pass very slowly.
     (There are) no two ways about it: (saying) used to show that you are certain about sth: It was the wrong decision—there are no two ways about it.
    There’s more than one way to skin a cat: (saying, humorous) there are many different ways to achieve sth.
    (You, etc.) may / might as well be hanged / hung for a sheep as (for) a lamb: (saying) if you are going to be punished for doing sth wrong, whether it is a big or small thing, you may as well do the big thing.
    Where there’s a will there’s a way: (saying) if you really want to do sth then you will find a way of doing it.
    All work and no play (makes Jack a dull boy): (saying) it is not healthy to spend all your time working; you need to relax too.
    The worm will turn: (saying) a person who is normally quiet and does not complain will protest when the situation becomes too hard to bear.
    Two wrongs don’t make a right: (saying) used to say that if sb does sth bad to you, the situation will not be improved by doing sth bad to them.
    Seeing is believing (saying) used to say that sb will have to believe that sth is true when they see it, although they do not think it is true now.

    Clauses of Reversal


    Used to introduce a word or phrase that contrasts with what was said before: I got it wrong. It wasn't the red one but the blue one. His mother won't be there, but his father might.
    However; despite this: I'd asked everybody but only two people came. By the end of the day we were tired but happy.
    Used when you are saying sorry about sth: I'm sorry but I can't stay any longer.
    Used to introduce a statement that shows that you are surprised or annoyed, or that you disagree: But that's not possible! "Here's the money I owe you. But that's not right - It was only $10."
    Except: I had no choice but to sign the contract.
    Used before repeating a word in order to emphasize it: Nothing, but nothing would make him change his mind.
    (Literary) used to emphasize that sth is always true: She never passed her old home but she thought of the happy years she had spent there (= she always thought of them).

    But for
    • If it were not for: He would have played but for a knee injury.
    • Except for: The square was empty but for a couple of cabs.
    But then (again)
    • However; on the other hand: He might agree. But then again he might have a completely different opinion.
    • Used before a statement that explains or gives a reason for what has just been said: She speaks very good Italian. But then she did live in Rome for a year (= so it's not surprising).
    You cannot / could not but... : (formal) used to show that everything else is impossible except the thing that you are saying: What could he do but forgive her? (= That was the only thing possible)
    Except: apart from: We've had nothing but trouble with this car. I came last but one in the race (= I wasn't last but next to last). Take the first turning but one (= not the first one but the one after it).
    Only: I don't think we'll manage it. Still, we can but try. There were a lot of famous people there: Tom Hanks and Julia Roberts, to name but two.


    Used with an adjective or adverb to mean "to whatever degree": He wanted to take no risks, however small. She has the window open, however cold it is outside. However carefully I explained, she still didn't understand.
    Whenever is used to emphasize how, meaning "in what way or manner", it is written as a separate word: How ever did you get here so quickly?
    In whatever way: However you look at it, it's going to cost a lot.
    Used to introduce a statement that contrasts with sth that has just been said: He was feeling bad. He went to work, however, and tried to concentrate. We thought the figures were correct. However, we have now discovered some errors.


    Despite sth that you have just mentioned. SYN nonetheless: There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law. Nevertheless, it is important that we try. Our defeat was expected but it is disappointing nevertheless.

    In Fact = In (actual) fact

    Used to give extra details about sth that has just been mentioned: I used to live in France; in fact, not far from where you're going.
    Used to emphasize a statement, especially one that is the opposite of what has just been mentioned: I thought the work would be difficult. In actual fact, it's very easy.
    Is that a fact? (Informal) used to reply to a statement that you find interesting or surprising, or that you do not believe: "She says I'm one of the best students she's ever taught. Is that a fact?"


    Used to emphasize sth unexpected or surprising: He never even opened the letter (= so he certainly didn't read it). It was cold there even in summer (= so it must have been very cold in winter). Even a child can understand it (= so adults certainly can). She didn't even call to say she wasn't coming.
    Used when you are comparing things, to make the comparison stronger: You know even less about it than I do. She's even more intelligent than her sister.
    Used to introduce a more exact description of sb/sth: It's an unattractive building, ugly even.

    Reported Speech

    Basis of Indirect Speech

    We use direct speech when we quote someone's words. Ex: "I will ring you later," said Jack.
    In indirect speech or reported speech we report the meaning in our own words and from our own point of view. Ex: Jack said he would ring later.
    Verbs reporting are: "agree, ask, hear, believe, know, suggest, think, understand..."
    We can use a verb of reporting with that_clause or wh_clause. But in Informal English we can leave "that" out, especially after a common verb like: "say". Ex: Polly said that she was going away. He wondered why it was so quiet. Tom says (that) he will be five minutes.
    We can sometimes use a "to Vinf clause or a gerund clause". Sometimes we use a phrase with "to", verbs in this pattern are: "admit, announce, complain, declare, mention, point out, recommend, report, say, write..." Ex: Jack promised to ring later. Someone suggested going for a walk. Can you explain to me what is going on?
    Sometimes there is an indirect object after the verb of reporting. Other verbs in this pattern are: "advise, assure, Inform, promise, reassure, remind..." Ex: no one told me you were coming.
    When we reporting two or more sentences, we do not need a verb of reporting in every one. Ex: the president said that the situation was under control. He had sent in the army.
    We normally use an indirect object after "tell", but after "say" we do not use an indirect object. After "say" we can use a phrase with "to". We can use either a that_clause or a wh_clause after "tell, say". Ex: you told me you didn't like Chinese food. John said he was going to London. Kate told me what the matter was. Mary said that she is fed up. I said to him, "I have been mugged".
    If the reporting verbs (say, ask, tell...) is in the present or present perfect, then tense of the sentence doesn't change. Ex: "I'm going home". => He says he is going home/ he has just told me he is going home.

    Changes in Indirect Speech

    a. Pronouns and possessives
    When report what someone has said, both pronouns and possessives change. Ex: Mary said: "I'm really enjoying myself". Mary said she was enjoying herself. "I like your new hairstyle", Jim said. Jim said he liked my new hairstyle.
    b. Adverbials of time
    • Now => then/ at that time/ immediately.
    • Today => yesterday/ that day.
    • Yesterday => the day before/ the previous day.
    • Tomorrow => the next day/ the following day.
    • This week => last week/ that week.
    • Last year => the year before/ the proviso year.
    • Next month => the month after/ the following month.
    • An hour ago => an hour before/ an hour earlier.
    c. Tenses in indirect speech
    We can use a present tense verb of reporting to report recent statements. Ex: Tom says he is hungry. Tom says he is hungry.
    In general we are more likely to change the tense if we are unsure if the statement is still true and still relevant. Past tense is also used to report in a neutral or objective way. The tense change in indirect speech is from present to past. Ex: you told me he lived in London, but actually he lives in Bristol. The forecast said it was going to rain the next day. The PM said it was the right decision. She said, "I'm awful". She said she felt awful.

    Reporting Questions

    There is no inversion of subject and auxiliary verb, and there is no do/ did/ does. And there is no question mark. Ex: "Why have you come here?" I asked her why she had come here. "How much is a ticket?" She wondered how much a ticket was. "When is the lecture?" Tom wanted to know when the lecture is. "Is the drug safe?" People ask if/ whether the drug is safe.
    When we reporting question, we use verbs such as: "ask, need to find out, want to know, wonder..."
    To report a yes/ no question, we use "if/ whether". Ex: "Has the car been repaired?" He asks if/ whether the car has been repaired.
    In an indirect question the tense can change from present to past. Ex: "What do you want?" He asked what we wanted. "Can we take photos?" Anna wondered if/ whether we could take photos.

    Reported Commands, Requests, etc.

    Reported commands, requests, offer and advice are formed with a "verb + person + to + Vinf". Notice the negative command, we use "not" before "to". Ex: they told us to go away. She persuaded me to have my hair cut. He told me not to tell anyone. The police warned people not to go out. My parents told me to tidy my room. I was asked to attend the interview.

    Relative Clauses

    Relative clauses are used to tell us which person or thing we are talking about. It makes it possible to give more Information about the person or thing being spoken about. Ex: "The boy has gone into hospital, he lives near my house." => "The boy who lives near my house has gone into hospital". The book is very good I bought it yesterday. => The book which I bought yesterday is very good.
    We use "who" to refer to people, "which" to refer to things. Which can be used to refer to the whole previous sentence or idea. Ex: I passed my driving test, which surprised everyone.
    We use "whose" to refer to someone's possessions. Ex: That's the woman whose son won the lottery.
    We can use "where" to refer to places. Ex: the hotel where I stayed was right on the beach.
    Note: Defining relative clauses (DRC) qualify a noun, and tell us exactly which person or thing is being referred to. There is no comma before a defining relative clause. Ex: she likes people who are good fun to be with. (She likes people on its own: doesn't mean very much; we need to know which people she like).
    Notice how we can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the relative clause. Ex: Did you like the present I gave you?
    We are not leave out the pronoun if it is the subject of the clause. Ex: I met a man who works in advertising.
    Prepositions usually come at the end of the relative clause. Ex: She is a friend I can always rely on.
    Note: Non-defining relative clauses (NDRC) add secondary Information to a sentence, almost as an afterthought. Ex: my friend Tom, who is England, plays the football. (My Friend Tom is clearly. We don't need to know which Tom is being discussed. The clause "who is England" gives us extra Information about him).
    Relative pronoun cannot be left out of NDRC. Ex: Paul, who has written several books, addressed the meeting.

    - Propositions can come at the end of the NDRC. In a more formal written style, propositions came before the pronoun. Ex: he talked about theories of market forces, which I'd never even heard of.
    DRC is much more common in the spoken language, and NDRC are more common in the written language. Ex: My friend Tom, who is England, plays the football. By the way.


    Used to show which person or people you mean: The people who called yesterday want to buy the house. The people (who) we met in France have sent us a card.
    Used to give more Information about sb: Mrs Smith, who has a lot of teaching experience at junior level, will be joining the school in September. And then Mary, who we had been talking about earlier, walked in.


    Used instead of "who" as the object of a verb or preposition: Whom did they invite? To whom should I write? The author whom you criticized in your review has written a reply. Her mother, in whom she confided, said she would support her unconditionally.
    The use of "whom" as the pronoun after prepositions is very formal: To whom should I address the letter? He asked me with whom I had discussed it. In spoken English it is much more natural to use who and put the preposition at the end of the sentence: Who should I address the letter to?
    In defining relative clauses the object pronoun "whom" is not often used. You can either use who or that, or leave out the pronoun completely: The family (who / that / whom) I met at the airport were very kind.
    In non-defining relative clauses who or, more formally, whom (but not that) is used and the pronoun cannot be left out: Our doctor, who / whom we all liked very much, retired last week. This pattern is not used very much in spoken English.


    Whose is not usually used to refer a thing, "of which" is usually used instead.
    Used in questions to ask who sth belongs to: Whose house is that? I wonder whose this is.
    Used to say which person or thing you mean: He's a man whose opinion I respect. It's the house whose door is painted red.
    Used to give more Information about a person or thing: Isobel, whose brother he was, had heard the joke before.


    Used to be exact about the thing or things that you mean: Houses, which overlook the lake, cost more. It was a crisis for which she was totally unprepared.
    Note: That can be used instead of which in this meaning, but it is not used immediately after a preposition: It was a crisis that she was totally unprepared for.
    Used to give more Information about sth: His best movie, which won several awards, was about the life of Gandhi. Your claim ought to succeed, in which case the damages will be substantial. That cannot be used instead of which in this meaning.


    Used after an expression of time to mean "at which" or "on which": Sunday is the only day when I can relax. There are times when I wonder why I do this job.
    At which time: on which occasion: The last time I went to Scotland was in May, when the weather was beautiful.
    What / which time: Until when can you stay? "I've got a new job. Since when?"


    Used after words or phrases that refer to a place or situation to mean "at, in/ to which": It's one of the few countries where people drive on the left.
    The place or situation in which: We then moved to Paris, where we lived for six years.
    (In) the place or situation in which: This is where I live. Sit where I can see you. Where people were concerned, his threshold of boredom was low. That's where (= the point in the argument at which) you're wrong.


    Used to give or talk about a reason: That's why I left so early. I know you did it - I just want to know why. The reason why the injection needs repeating every year is that the virus changes.


    Used as a relative pronoun to introduce a part of a sentence, which refers to the person, thing or time, you have been talking about: Where's the letter that came yesterday? Who was it that won the US Open? The watch (that) you gave me keeps perfect time. The people (that) I spoke to were very helpful. We moved here the year (that) my mother died.
    Note: In spoken and Informal written English that is nearly always left out when it is the object of the verb or is used with a preposition.